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Hemorrhoidectomy is a medical operation to remove internal hemorrhoids of third degree and fourth degree, when other procedures fail to treat them, in other words, the pain, irritation, swelling and bleeding persists. In some cases hemorrhoidectomy is also advised for external hemorrhoids, which have been unsuccessful to be treated with the correct method.

Hemorrhoidectomy is a quite simple operation and can be performed under local, spinal or general anesthesia. As per the patients’ condition, the extent of the operation and the patients’ preference, the surgeons will choose the correct type of anesthesia for the operation. Local anesthesia is a numbing agent which is injected directly into the immediate region; spinal anesthesia will numb the patient from the pelvis down and general anesthesia will cause the patient into unconsciousness.

Normally tests are taken before the surgery is done, depending on the patients health these test include an x-ray of the chest, urine and blood samples and even aspirin to thin the blood. In most cases the doctor will suggest that the patient refrains from eating or drinking from the night before the operation to prevent the risk of vomiting during or after the surgery is performed.

The procedure for this surgery is a very simple one and when all the necessary planning have been made the operation will last from one hour to one hour and a half. The patient is placed face down on the operation table with the buttocks slightly lifted and the legs placed in stirrups, thus the anus and rectum are exposed. Once the anesthesia has taken effect the hemorrhoid will be tied to prevent it from bleeding and finally detached.

Once the surgery is over the patient will be placed in recovery until the anesthesia subsides and the patient can urinate, this is to ensure that swelling in the tissues does not occur and cause problem to urinate. If the patient has recovered, he or she can go home the same day, in other words, as an outpatient. On rare instances, if there are any complications with the surgery, the patient will have to stay under observation.

Pain and bleeding after the surgery is to be expected and therefore the doctor is likely to administer the patient with some medicine. It is also usual to bleed when moving bowels, especially directly after the surgery and it is usually recommended to take some numbing drugs before trying to move bowels. Taking antibiotics after the operation will prevent any infections that might occur.

It is advised by doctors to take special care post surgery to prevent any unwanted pain and discomfort. Trying to soften stools by eating a high fiber diet will relieve strain when moving stools, taking stool softeners is also highly recommended. Taking baths in warm water will help loosen up muscles and ease pain as well.

Just like any type of surgery there can be risks and troubles in both early and late stages. In early stages after the surgery the problems can include constipation, hematoma (collection of blood in the surgical area) incontinence, infection and also bleeding. In later stages after surgery problems can include rectal prolapse, a narrowing of the anal canal and also the reappearance of hemorrhoids. If these symptoms arise, it is best to seek medical advice as soon as possible.

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